On March 16, the Department of Environmental Protection, along with the Wyoming County Conservation District, encouraged visitors to a popular trail to protect themselves against the rare Deer Tick Virus (DTV), a potentially serious tickborne disease.
The announcement was made at the Iroquois Trail trailhead in Wyoming County.
In the past several weeks, DTV has been found at high levels for the first time along the Iroquois Trail, a county-owned recreation area near Tunkhannock, and at two other locations across the state.
“The weather is getting nicer and more people are going out and enjoying trails near their hometowns, but they should also be aware that DTV is increasing in tick populations,” said DEP Secretary Patrick McDonnell. “They should plan now on how to protect themselves so they can avoid health complications in the future.”
DEP’s Tick Surveillance and Testing Program collected 50 samples at the Iroquois Trail, and a majority of them came back positive for DTV.
Samples were taken from two other sites: Fisherman’s Paradise public fishing area on Spring Creek in Centre County and Lawrence Township Recreational Park in Clearfield County.
At each of these locations, the infection rate exceeded 80% of ticks sampled. DTV has been detected in a total of 16 Pennsylvania counties, and the statewide infection rate outside of the three “hotspot” locations is currently 0.6% of ticks sampled.
“The county is working proactively with DEP to make sure outdoor recreation is safe and enjoyable for all,” said WCCD District Manager Doug Deutsch. “The conservation district is assisting DEP with tick sampling and surveillance and getting the message out that people should begin protecting themselves now.”
DEP and WCCD are also encouraging residents to protect themselves from another tick-borne disease: Lyme disease.
Blacklegged ticks, also called deer ticks, are active now and have been since mid-winter.
DEP has posted signage to alert the public and will conduct control measures and additional testing to reduce and monitor the number of ticks present in the recreational areas with high positivity rates for DTV.
Recommended precautions for anyone venturing outdoors include:
— Apply tick repellents containing permethrin to clothing and EPA-registered insect repellents such as DEET to exposed skin before entering the outdoors. Reapply as needed according to product label instructions.
— Wear light-colored outer clothing and tuck shirts into pants, and pants into socks.
— Walk in the centers of trails, and avoid wooded and brushy areas with low-growing vegetation and tall grasses that may harbor ticks.
— After returning home, remove all clothing, take a shower, and place clothing into the dryer on high heat to kill any lingering ticks. Examine gear such as backpacks for ticks.
— Conduct a full-body tick check using a hand or full-length mirror, including hidden areas such as the scalp, ears, armpits, belly button, and between the legs.
— Check over any pets exposed to likely tick habitats each time they return indoors.
— If a tick is found attached to your skin, use tweezers to remove it carefully, including the head. Monitor for symptoms and contact your doctor with any questions.
For more information about tickborne disease prevention, visit the Department of Health’s Tickborne Diseases webpage.
Tick Surveillance Program
The DTV-positive ticks were discovered during routine testing as part of DEP’s active tick surveillance program, a five-year pilot program that began in 2018.
Surveys are conducted in every county in Pennsylvania to track ticks’ habitats, life stages and peak activity levels and to test them for human pathogenic diseases.
Fall and winter surveillance focuses on analyzing adult blacklegged ticks for emerging and changing disease burdens in public use habitats across Pennsylvania, such as parks, playgrounds, recreational fields, and state game lands.
The previous highest DTV infection rate found at a single location in Pennsylvania was 11%, and the highest infection rate reported nationally in scientific literature was approximately 25%.
The statewide average infection rate for DTV was 0.6% in 2021 when adult tick samples were collected.
DTV, which is a type of Powassan virus, is rare in the United States, but positive cases have increased in recent years.
Powassan virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected tick. Although still rare, the number of reported cases of people sick from Powassan virus has increased in recent years. Most cases in the United States occur in the northeast and Great Lakes regions from late spring through mid-fall when ticks are most active. There are no vaccines to prevent or medicines to treat Powassan virus disease. Reduce your risk of infection from Powassan virus by avoiding ticks.CDC: Powassan Virus
It is spread to people primarily by bites from infected ticks and does not spread person-to-person through coughing, sneezing, or touching.
Powassan virus can be transmitted from tick to human in as little as 15 minutes after a bite occurs, while other tickborne diseases, such as Lyme disease, take much longer to cause infection, often 24 hours or more after the tick attaches to the host.
There are no vaccines to prevent or medicines to treat Powassan viruses. Preventing tick bites is the best way to reduce risk of infection and disease.
Initial symptoms of a DTV infection may include fever, headache, vomiting, and weakness. Some people who are infected with DTV
experience no symptoms, and therefore infection may go undetected.
However, 91% of patients treated for DTV infections develop severe neuroinvasive disease.
Those who exhibit severe disease from DTV may experience encephalitis or meningitis and require hospitalization, with symptoms including confusion, loss of coordination, difficulty speaking, or seizures.
About 12% of people with severe disease have died, and approximately half of survivors of severe disease have suffered long-term health impacts.
For more information about the health impacts of DTV, visit the CDC Powassan Virus webpage.
[Posted: March 16, 2022] PA Environment Digest