MARCELLUS SHALE HISTORY: Disposing of liquid and solid drilling waste 2009-2015

This guest essay first appeared on on September 16, 2022.  and was reprinted in the PA Environment Digest Blog on September 17, 2022. The deadline for submitting public comments on this process to DEP is Monday September 19.

PA DEP Needs to Evaluate Health Impacts of Evaporating Leachate from a Westmoreland Landfill Accepting Shale Gas Drilling Waste

By Justin Nobel

Note: Photos and information about the McKeesport and Clairton POTW’s (both with discharges into the Monongahela River, the drinking water source for hundreds of thousands people) have been added to Justin’s original essay below.

I’m a science journalist and four years ago, I fell down the oil-field radioactivity rabbit hole. 

Here in Pennsylvania, a landfill applying for a permit with the state’s Department of Environmental Protection to evaporate liquid landfill runoff — called leachate — could create airborne radioactive material over people downwind.

Every day across the nation, about 2.8 billion gallons of oil field brine are produced with toxic levels of salt, heavy metals, and the radioactive element radium. In Pennsylvania, levels have been recorded at up to 5,700 times EPA’s safe drinking water limit.

Sludge that forms on the bottom of tanks and trucks that hold brine can be even richer in radium and can also contain exceptional amounts of radioactive lead. And with every Marcellus well, crushed rock and dirt called drill cuttings are bored out of black shale — a type of geologic formation the U.S. Geologic Survey reported in 1960 was so rich in uranium they thought about mining it, with the oil “considered as a possibly important byproduct.”

Drill cuttings pit

All this waste must be handled, transported, and disposed of. My reporting has documented problems at every step. 

Brine is pumped deep underground at facilities called injection wells, which causes earthquakes. 

In Ohio, these wells are leaking. Sludge and drill cuttings are taken to treatment facilities where it’s often the task of improperly trained and inappropriately protected workers to mix in materials like lime in an attempt to solidify the material and lower the radioactive signature. 

Photos: Radioactive fracking waste on a Washington County, PA well pad

If the radiation levels in the sludge decrease enough, the waste can be trucked to the same local landfills that handle household trash instead of being shipped by rail to radioactive waste disposal sites out west — a more expensive but safer option.

At Westmoreland Sanitary in Belle Vernon, Pa., the Department of Environmental Protection told me from 2013 through 2017, 276,416 tons of oil-field waste were disposed. 

The landfill has also taken more than 200 tons of oil-field waste from an Ohio facility.

An investigation I published last month revealed that workers are being dangerously exposed to radioactive sludge; I also found that railcars, which were being routed across the country to a disposal facility in the Utah desert, arrived at their destination leaking material.

As Ted Auch, an analyst with the advocacy group, FracTracker Alliance, told me, “waste is the oil and gas industry’s Achilles’ heel.” 

Costs of proper disposal are high and oversight is lax. A 1980 congressional exemption labeled oil-field waste nonhazardous despite many known hazards. 

As a result, the industry has regularly resorted to risky disposal measures, including disposing of oil-field brine at sewage treatment plants and spreading drilling waste on farm fields, a practice common in Oklahoma and Texas. 

Additional insights related to Justin Nobel’s essay:
Two sewage treatment plants along the Monongahela River (upriver from Pittsburgh, PA) were accepting oil & gas wastewater in the ‘early years’ of Marcellus Shale fracking. The McKeesport Water Pollution Control Center was one of them:
Letter from US EPA Region 3 Director Shawn M. Garvin to PA DEP Acting Secretary Michael Krancer:

Photo gallery: The McKeesport sewage treatment plant was one of at least two sewage facilities accepting oil-field brine. Sewage plants were never designed to process this sort of toxic waste. Clean Water Action & Three Rivers Waterkeeper reached a settlement agreement with the McKeesport facility in 2012 as seen below:

The Clairton Water Pollution Control Plant discharges also flowed into the Monongahela River:

A September 5, 2010 story by Rich Lord in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette offers additional insights on the Clairton facility:
“Greene Disposal was created in August 2009, according to state records. Two months later it edged out CNX Gas Corp. to gain control of Clairton’s capacity for accepting the chemically tainted water used in shale gas extraction.
CNX, an offshoot of 146-year-old Consol Energy Inc., had approached the Clairton Municipal Authority asking if it could dispose of gas-drilling wastewater at the Mon Valley city’s sanitation plant, for a fee. CNX offered to pay the Clairton Municipal Authority 6 cents per gallon to accept its gas-drilling wastewater — often called frack water — treat it and add it to the flow it discharges into Peters Creek and thereby the Monongahela River.
The same week, according to authority superintendent Patrick Canavan, Greene Disposal emerged with a better bid. Greene Disposal, based in the Greene County town of Mount Morris, offered to pay the authority 6.5 cents per gallon of water accepted. On top of that, Greene Disposal pledged to pay to deposit 39,500 gallons — the maximum that the authority can take under state environmental rules — even if it delivers less than that amount.
“It’s a no-brainer,” said Mr. Canavan. The five-member board voted, 3-0, with two members absent, to accept Greene Disposal’s proposal and reject CNX’s.” Clairton’s authority is on pace to reap nearly $700,000 in the first 12 months from the arrangement…” Full story

Higher levels of TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) in the Monongahela River began to create problems for public water treatment plants due to high TTHM’s (Total Trihalomethanes) levels, which actually create more of health risk with inhalation during a hot bath or shower, than from drinking a glass of water. Of course then people began wondering what else was in their tap water that the water company isn’t required to test.
Rising levels of trihalomethanes forced a change of water disinfection from chlorine to chloramine, since it would produce less TTHM’s when treating high-TDS Monongahela River water. However, chloramine has its own set of downsides, with a couple of them being the potential of releasing more lead from old plumbing, and requiring an annual chlorine ‘burn’ to eliminate any lingering pathogens in the water system since it doesn’t disinfect as well as chlorine:

MORE: Chloramines in Drinking Water (EPA)
Citizens Concerned About Chloramine (CCAC)

Additional related documents:
Back to Justin Nobel’s essay:

For landfills that accept oil field waste, one big problem is leachate.

For years, liquid landfill waste from Westmoreland flowed through a sewer pipe and into Belle Vernon’s sewage-treatment plant. 

Belle Vernon – North Belle Vernon Water Pollution Control Plant

In 2019, I met the plant’s superintendent, Guy Kruppa. He told me the stuff was so toxic that it was ruining his plant’s ability to treat sewage. 

Not only that, but it was also sending contaminants into the Monongahela River, a drinking water source. 

That same year, a judge ordered the landfill to halt the practice. 

The Department of Environmental Protection told me about 17 truckloads of leachate a day was instead being shipped to other sewage plants, an option that the agency said, “is not a preferred situation.” 

Last month, the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review reported that leachate had leaked into a local stream and the landfill didn’t immediately phone the Department of Environmental Protection or emergency management officials, as required by law.

Landfill leachate

Liquid landfill waste clearly remains an issue, but we have two constantly moving bodies of fluids on this planet: water and air. If you can’t use water to carry away your waste for free, why not try the air?

A leachate evaporator is a gas-fired boiler that will cook away the liquid landfill waste. A pair of treatment systems will remove 99% of the radioactivity, according to Westmoreland, relying in part on a device called a mist eliminator. 

But the science of precisely how this will be done is not clear and was not well explained during a hearing in early September. 

Yet, it’s of utmost importance, because the agency admits radium is the main radioactive element “of concern in the landfill leachate proposed for evaporation” and has found radium at levels dozens of times EPA’s safe drinking water limit at similar landfills.

Radium is commonly referred to by radiation experts as “a bone seeker.” If accidentally inhaled or ingested, the radioactive element tends to accumulate in the bones, where it continues emitting radiation and can lead to cancer — just like happened with the infamous factory workers of the World War I era known as the Radium Girls.

Marcellus shale is radioactive

Westmoreland Sanitary Landfill has not replied to my questions. 

Heartland Water Technology, the company providing the Leachate Evaporation System, did not answer my question as to how their system will remove radium, telling me, “Unfortunately, Heartland Water Technology is bound by confidentiality to our customers.”

While the Department of Environmental Protection has mandated that Westmoreland test regularly for radioactivity and instructed the landfill to “stop operations, if needed,” testing will be done through the landfill and results will not be immediately available to the public. 

Furthermore, no public health analysis was done for this evaporation project. 

Surrounding residents will become unwitting test subjects for what appears to be a novel method of leachate disposal for landfills accepting oil field waste.

Public Comments Due Monday Sept. 19, 2022

I encourage all Pennsylvanians concerned about the oil and gas industry’s continued transgressions to raise their voices and comment. 

Information on Westmoreland Sanitary Landfill’s Leachate Evaporation System can be found here

Comments are due 4 p.m. Eastern on Monday, Sept. 19, and can be emailed to  or mailed to the DEP’s Southwest Regional Office, Air Quality Program, 400 Waterfront Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 and should contain the name, address, email, and telephone number of the person submitting the comments, identification of the proposed Plan Approval (PA-65-00767C), a concise statement, and the relevant facts upon which the comments are based.

Justin Nobel is working on a book about oil-field radioactivity to be published with Simon & Schuster.


— TribLive: Westmoreland Landfill Cited For Leachate Leak Into Speers Run

Related Articles – Westmoreland Landfill:

DEP To Hold 2 Hearings On Air Quality Permit For Westmoreland Sanitary Landfill Leachate Evaporation System

DEP Fines Westmoreland Sanitary Landfill $24,000 To Resolve Waste Violations; Drilling Waste Impacts On Leachate

Belle Vernon Municipal Authority Taking A Stand Against Pollution From Drilling Waste

Related Articles – Health Threats:

— Environmental Health Project: PA’s Natural Gas Boom – What Went Wrong? Why Does It Matter?  What Can We Do Better To Protect Public Health?  [PaEN]

— Senate Hearing: Body Of Evidence Is ‘Large, Growing,’ ‘Consistent’ And ‘Compelling’ That Shale Gas Development Is Having A Negative Impact On Public Health; PA Must Act  [PaEN]

— Penn State Study: Potential Pollution Caused By Road Dumping Conventional Oil & Gas Wastewater Makes It Unsuitable For A Dust Suppressant, Washes Right Off The Road Into The Ditch  [7.26.22]

New Book Edited By Researchers From 3 Pittsburgh Universities Now Available On The Environmental Impacts From The Development Of Unconventional Oil & Gas Reserves

[Posted: September 17, 2022]  PA Environment Digest | Source


Investigation reveals oil and gas drilling waste dumped at local magistrate, Dairy Queen
March 29, 2017 – An investigation conducted by the Office of the Attorney General revealed oil and gas industry waste was illegally dumped at multiple Fayette County locations, including Dairy Queen property in Uniontown and a magistrate’s office. The illegal dumping allegedly occurred at five locations, including an area behind Dairy Queen at 575 West Main St. in Uniontown and Magisterial District Judge Richard Kasunic II’s office at 3177 Pittsburgh St. in Star Junction. The waste originated at Trans Energy sites in West Virginia. Test results completed at each location detected diesel fuel and compounds including barium, sulfate and strontium, indicative of shale formation cuttings, investigators said. Employees allegedly began the illegal dumping at Joseph’s property, called the “Perry Pit” off of Zias Road on Joseph’s direction. He allegedly admitted that he began directing drivers to dump 1,000 tri-axle truckloads of waste, or about 22,000 tons, beginning in mid-2013.


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